Conditions

In this post, you will find short summaries of some of the major neurological conditions. To learn more about a specific condition and related posts, click on the titles in the post to go directly to a slide show of related posts.

Addictions     Alzheimer’s Disease
Autism     Brain Tumor
Insomnia      Mental Disorders
Parkinson’s Disease     Spinal Cord Injuries
Stroke      Traumatic Brain Injuries 

Alzheimer’s Disease Overview

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time.

The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues

Mental Disorders Overview

There are many different mental disorders, with different presentations. They are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior and relationships with others.

Mental disorders include: depression, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia and other psychoses, dementia, intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders including autism.

Autism Overview

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life.

These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then regress. The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent in early childhood, typically before age three.

Brain Tumor Overview

A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[1] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.

Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors.

Chronic Pain Overview

Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset,

Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. It is difficult to treat, and is often handled by a pain management team. Some people with chronic pain benefit from opioid treatment and others from psychological treatments.

Insomnia Overview

Insomnia, also known as trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is trouble to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.

While the term is sometimes used to describe a disorder as diagnosed by polysomnographic or actigraphic evidence, this is often practically defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"

Parkinson’s Disease Overview

Parkinson's disease (PD), also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome, or paralysis agitans, is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.

The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain.

Spinal Cord Injury Overview

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord resulting in a change, either temporary or permanent, in the cord’s normal motor, sensory, or autonomic function.

Common causes of damage are trauma (car accident, gunshot, falls, sports injuries, etc.) or disease (transverse myelitis, polio, spina bifida, Friedreich’s ataxia, etc.). The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of function to occur.

Stroke Overview

Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.

In 2013, stroke was the second most frequent cause of death after coronary artery disease, accounting for 6.4 million deaths (12% of the total). About 3.3 million deaths resulted from ischemic stroke while 3.2 million deaths resulted from hemorrhagic stroke. About half of people who have had a stroke live less than one year.

Traumatic Brain Injury Overview

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area).

Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.

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