ENIGMA mapping brain’s genetic code

Summary

The ENIGMA Network is an international network that brings together researchers in imaging genomics, neurology and psychiatry, to understand brain structure and function, based on MRI, DTI, fMRI, genetic data and many patient populations.

Enigma is an acronym for Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis. ENIGMA has found 8 common gene mutations leading to brain age in over 30,000 brain scans that may some day unlock mysteries of Alzheimer’s, autism and other neurological disorders.

Link to ENIGMA Hub

Consortium

The Enigma Consortium

The Network is an international effort by leaders worldwide. The Network brings together researchers in imaging genomics, neurology and psychiatry, to understand brain structure and function, based on MRI, DTI, fMRI, genetic data and many patient populations. Enigma is an acronym for Enhancing Neuro Imageing Genetics Through Meta Analysis.

USC Imaging Genetics Center

The USC Imaging Genetics Center, led by Dr. Paul Thompson, is a diverse research team of neuroscientists, medical doctors, computer scientists, mathematicians and engineers, all involved in studying brain imaging, genetics, brain development and disease, and the connections among them.

We develop mathematically innovative and highly computationalmethods to use the dense detailed data available from imaging and genomics to map variation in the brain and expand our understanding of brain health and disease.

Articles

USC neuroscientists lead global ENIGMA consortium to crack brain’s genetic code

Global research alliance ENIGMA finds 8 common gene mutations leading to brain age in over 30,000 brain scans that may some day unlock mysteries of Alzheimer’s, autism and other neurological disorders.

Research published in Jan. 21 Journal Nature. AAAS press release below.

In the largest collaborative study of the brain to date, researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC) led a global consortium of 190 institutions to identify eight common genetic mutations that appear to age the brain an average of three years. The discovery could lead to targeted therapies and interventions for Alzheimer’s disease, autism and other neurological conditions.

An international team of roughly 300 scientists known as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) Network pooled brain scans and genetic data worldwide to pinpoint genes that enhance or break down key brain regions in people from 33 countries. This is the first high-profile study since the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched its Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) centers of excellence in 2014. The research was published Wednesday, Jan. 21, in the peer-reviewed journal Nature.

“ENIGMA’s scientists screen brain scans and genomes worldwide for factors that help or harm the brain — this crowd-sourcing and sheer wealth of data gives us the power to crack the brain’s genetic code,” said Paul Thompson, Ph.D., Keck School of Medicine of USC professor and principal investigator of ENIGMA. “Our global team discovered eight genes that may erode or boost brain tissue in people worldwide. Any change in those genes appears to alter your mental bank account or brain reserve by 2 or 3 percent. The discovery will guide research into more personalized medical treatments for Alzheimer’s, autism, depression and other disorders.”

The study could help identify people who would most benefit from new drugs designed to save brain cells, but more research is necessary to determine if the genetic mutations are implicated in disease.

The ENIGMA researchers screened millions of “spelling differences” in the genetic code to see which ones affected the size of key parts of the brain in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from 30,717 individuals. The MRI analysis focused on genetic data from seven regions of the brain that coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation. The group identified eight genetic variants associated with decreased brain volume, several found in over one-fifth of the world’s population. People who carry one of those eight mutations had, on average, smaller brain regions than brains without a mutation but of comparable age; some of the genes are implicated in cancer and mental illness.

In October 2014, the NIH invested nearly $32 million in its Big Data Initiative, creating 12 research hubs across the United States to improve the utility of biomedical data. USC’s two BD2K centers of excellence, including ENIGMA, were awarded a total of $23 million over four years.

“The ENIGMA Center’s work uses vast datasets as engines of biomedical discovery; it shows how each individual’s genetic blueprint shapes the human brain,” said Philip Bourne, Ph.D., associate director for data science at the NIH. “This ‘Big Data’ alliance shows what the NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Program envisions achieving with our 12 Centers of Excellence for Big Data Computing.”

Crowdsourcing Study of 30,000 Images Connects Genes to Brain Size

Large studies linking genes with disease have not paid off well in neuroscience. For some common conditions, like depression, there are no convincing DNA clues at all. Instead of giving up, however, some researchers are instead seeking ways to vastly increase the size of studies. In the case of Enigma, that happened by “crowdsourcing” analysis of existing MRI scans. “There are brain images of many kinds on Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, and autism that people have collected for decades. There is just astronomical data that is siloed,” says Thompson. MIT Technology Review by Antonio Regalado on January 21, 2015

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