Neuroanatomy Overview

Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems.

In contrast to animals with radial symmetry, whose nervous system consists of a distributed network of cells, animals with bilateral symmetry have segregated, defined nervous systems. In vertebrates, the nervous system is segregated into the internal structure of the brain and spinal cord (together called the central nervous system, or CNS) and the routes of the nerves that connect to the rest of the body (known as the peripheral nervous system, or PNS).

Link to Neuroanatomy Hub

Initial Overview based on Wikipedia entry Jan. 3, 2016.  Also see the Nervous SystemBrain,  and Human Brain wikipedia entries.

Molecular Neuroscience Overview

Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.

The scope of this subject covers topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases.

Neuroinformatics Overview

Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.

These areas of research are important for the integration and analysis of increasingly large-volume, high-dimensional, and fine-grain experimental data. Neuroinformaticians provide computational tools, mathematical models, and create interoperable databases for clinicians and research scientists.

Basic Research in Neuroscience

In this post, you will find short summaries of some of the major basic research disciplines in neuroscience. To learn more about a specific discipline and related posts, click on the titles in this post to go directly to a slide show of related posts.

Neuroanatomy & Physiology
Neuroinformatics  
Molecular Neuroscience Cellular Neuroscience
Neuropharmacology
Cognitive Neuroscience   Behavioral Neuroscience  
Social Neuroscience    Systems Neuroscience
Computational Neuroscience

Behavioral Neuroscience Overview

Behavioral neuroscience is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human animals.

It typically investigates at the level of neurons, neurotransmitters, brain circuitry and the basic biological processes that underlie normal and abnormal behavior. Often, experiments in behavioral neuroscience involve non-human animal models (such as rats and mice, and non-human primates) which have implications for better understanding of human pathology.

Cellular Neuroscience Overview

Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons. Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2+ imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level.

Cognitive Neuroscience Overview

Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology.

Cognitive neuroscience is an academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by neural circuits in the brain.

Computational Neuroscience Overview

Computational neuroscience (also theoretical neuroscience) is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system.

It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics.

Developmental Neuroscience Overview

Neural development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to the final years of life.

The study of neural development aims to describe the cellular basis of brain development and to address the underlying mechanisms.

Neuropharmacology Overview

Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.

Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain.[1] Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function.

Social Neuroscience Overview

Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes, and to using biological concepts and methods to develop theories of social behavior.

Emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural and hormonal mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too survived to reproduce.

Skip to toolbar