Neuromodulation Overview

Neuromodulation is the process when a neuron uses one or more neurotransmitters to regulate populations of neurons, unlike in classical synaptic transmission, where a presynaptic neuron directly influences a postsynaptic partner.

Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

Ultrasound Neuronal Stimulation

Transcranial pulsed ultrasound (TPU) uses low intensity, low frequency ultrasound (LILFU) as a method to stimulate the brain. In 2002, Dr. Alexander Bystritsky proposed the idea that this methodology contained therapeutic benefits.

Beginning in 2008, Dr. William Tyler and his research team from Arizona State University began an investigation and development of this alternative neuromodulation without the harmful effects and risks of invasive surgery. They discovered that this low-power ultrasound is able to stimulate high neuron activity which allows for the manipulation of the brain waves through an external source.

Neurofeedback Overview

Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses realtime displays of electroencephalography (EEG) or hemoencephalography(HEG) to illustrate brain activity and teach self-regulation.

EEG neurofeedback uses sensors that are placed on the scalp to measure brain waves, while HEG neurofeedback uses infrared (IR) sensors or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain blood flow.

Initial Overview based on Wikipedia entry Jan. 6, 2016. Also see biofeedback.


Neuroprosthetics (also called neural prosthetics) is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses.

They are sometimes contrasted with a brain–computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality.

Early Access to Neuromodulation and Recording

NIH BRAIN Initiative Workshop: Industry Partnerships to Facilitate Early Access to Neuromodulation and Recording Devices for Human Clinical Studies

TIME: 12:00:00 PM DATE: June 3 and 4, 2015

PLACE: Neuroscience Center Building (NSC)

Live NIH Videocast (archived after seminar)

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